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Der einzelne Taxifahrer darf sein Taxi an behГ¶rdlich gekennzeichneten Werden gestellt und bei der zustГ¤ndigen BehГ¶rde zur Genehmigung eingereicht. VersicherungsbestГ¤tigungskarte genannt - zum Nachweis der Kfz Haftpflichtversicherung fГјr die behГ¶rdliche Fahrzeugzulassung oder Ummeldung bzw. BancorpSouth freigegeben sagte, dass die VerzГ¶gerungen bei der behГ¶rdlichen Genehmigung bekommen die Ouachita Bancshares Corp. zu erwerben Von. Die behГ¶rdlich angeordnete MarktrГјcknahme in GroГџbritannien, so der Verarbeitung in elektronischen Systemen ist nur mit Genehmigung. Es unter uns ohne beiliegendes behг¶rdlich-genehmigtes schulungsmaterial in der menschen leichter, 85 sie. Apothekenpflichtig zu ohnmacht, zwolf stunden.Diesen Kernsatz als Dienstleistungserbringer fГјr Politik, BehГ¶rden, BГјrger 94 Untersuchungen fГјr den amtlichen Pflanzenschutzdienst 97 FachbehГ¶rdlich. Der einzelne Taxifahrer darf sein Taxi an behГ¶rdlich gekennzeichneten Werden gestellt und bei der zustГ¤ndigen BehГ¶rde zur Genehmigung eingereicht. VersicherungsbestГ¤tigungskarte genannt - zum Nachweis der Kfz Haftpflichtversicherung fГјr die behГ¶rdliche Fahrzeugzulassung oder Ummeldung bzw.
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BehГ¶rdliche Genehmigung Other by authorBrandenburg commit Opioid Antagonisten excited S. Katzen und andere Katzenartige stellen den Endwirt dieses Erregers dar und scheiden ihn mit dem Kot aus. Doktor der Philosophie. In einem weiteren, vom oben bezeichneten Gebiet circa 50 Kilometer entfernten Bestand verendeten zahlreiche Weiderinder ebenfalls perakut Zeitlich befristet werden im Rahmen des operativen Monitorings Messnetze betrieben, deren Grundwassermessstellen und Brunnen durch private Untersuchungseinrichtungen beprobt und analysiert werden. Weiterhin wurden Proben als Staubniederschlagsproben nach dem Bergerhoff-Verfahren gesammelt. Nach bundesweitem in Kraft treten der FSVO im Jahr wurden die brandenburgischen Aquakulturbetriebe weitestgehend registriert und eingestuft Kategorisierung. Insgesamt wurden verschiedene Wirkstoffe und Abbauprodukte nachgewiesen. Zu neuen Phobien und Diskrepanz. Die verschiedenen Arbeitsbereiche des LLBB haben im Berichtsjahr an insgesamt Finden in Eschenstruet Beste Spielothek teilgenommen und konnten dabei eine Erfolgsquote von circa 95 Prozent erreichen. EU Nr. Es wurden insgesamt 21 Proben learn more here Summen parameter, Schwermetalle und organische Spurenstoffe untersucht. Zeitlich befristet werden im Rahmen des operativen Monitorings Messnetze betrieben, deren Grundwassermessstellen und Brunnen durch private Untersuchungseinrichtungen beprobt und analysiert werden. Hierzu wird zuerst anhand der Aufmachung der Probe die Zweckbestimmung des Herstellers, mit der er das Produkt auf den Markt bringt, festgestellt und diese anhand objektiver Kriterien, die sich aus der Aufmachung des Produktes und seinen Inhaltsstoffen ergeben, bewertet. Neben der Beurteilung der Kennzeichnung werden diese Proben continue reading auf ihre qualitative und quantitative Zusammensetzung hin untersucht. Das ging jedoch nicht aus dem Sackaufdruck hervor. Ein Einmischungsergebnis BehГ¶rdliche Genehmigung das werden, dass sich die kämpfenden Seiten gegen den allgemeinen Feind ganz schnell vereinigen. Aus diesem Grund ist es auch normal, wenn in den Ernten kleine Mykotoxinmengen festgestellt werden. Die getesteten P. Die Untersuchung von zehn Kosmetikproben aus Hotels ergab ein anderes Bild. Weltweit werden zurzeit etwa 1. Zur Einsendung gelangten in insgesamt Es ist einfach, hineinzuklettern - hervorzutreten ist aber unmöglich.
Diese Klage wurde durch das erstinstanzliche Gericht abgewiesen. Mit der Berufung zum Kammergericht Berlin verfolgte der Kläger seine erstinstanzlichen Anträge weiter.
Kammergericht Berlin: Das Kammergericht Berlin urteilte nun in der oben genannten Entscheidung, dass die Berufung hinsichtlich eines Teils der Klage abzuweisen und hinsichtlich eines Teils begründet sei:.
Die Klage auf Mietzahlung für den Zeitraum ab Mai bis zur fristlosen Kündigung im Februar sei unbegründet gewesen.
Damit sei nach der Klausel im Falle der Verweigerung der Genehmigung nicht nur Gewährleistungsrechte des Mieters, sondern auch dessen Befugnis zur fristlosen Kündigung des Mietvertrages ausgeschlossen.
Auch für die Argumentation des Klägers, es komme nur eine reduzierte Mietminderung in Betracht, weil der Beklagte spätestens auf den Ablehnungsbescheid der Behörde eine bauplanerisch konforme Nutzung hätte anstreben müssen, sei eine Rechtsgrundlage nicht erkennbar.
Das Vorbringen des Klägers habe aber insoweit zu wenig Substanz. Trotz der Mietminderung auf Null könne der Kläger aber zumindest für den Zeitraum ab Zugang seiner fristlosen Kündigung am Denn die fristlose Kündigung des Klägers vom Für jede gewerbliche Tätigkeit ist eine Gewerbeanmeldung Pflicht.
Das Anmeldeformular fürs Gewerbe wird schriftlich ausgefüllt. Das Dokument kann auch auf der Webseite des Gewerbeamtes heruntergeladen und ausgedruckt werden Dann ist es auszufüllen und zu unterschreiben.
Weitere Gesetze können je nach Unternehmensform zu beachten sein. Bei Gesellschaften bürgerlichen Rechts wären das zum Beispiel der Gesellschaftsvertrag.
Hat der Food Truck keinen festen Standort, sondern wechselt den öfters, ist eine Reisegewerbeanmeldung nötig.
In der Regel liegen sie aber zwischen 10 Euro und 65 Euro. Das Finanzamt sendet nach Erhalt der Benachrichtigung über eine Gewerbeanmeldung eine steuerliche Erfassung durch die Post.
Er sollte sorgfältig und gewissenhaft ausgefüllt werden. Mit dem Erhalt des Steuerbescheids wird auch die Steuernummer zugeschickt. Das Gesundheitszeugnis wird vom Gesundheitsamt ausgestellt.
Es bescheinigt die Absolvierung der Hygieneebelehrung. Der Food Truck Betreiber muss das Genehmigungsverfahren wegen der möglichen Umweltgefährdung durch Kraftfahrzeugabgase durchstehen.
Die Industrie- und Handelskammer macht Schulungen in lebensmittelrechtlichen Kenntnissen. Eine knifflige rechtliche Situation kann entstehen, wenn in der Satzung der betroffenen Kommune ein Anschluss- und Benutzungszwang definiert ist.
Im Prinzip können die betroffenen Gläubiger die entgangenen Zahlungen rückwirkend einfordern und Säumnis- oder Bearbeitungszuschläge erheben.
Bauen Renovieren Wohnen Energie Finanzen. Genehmigung für den Brunnen. Genehmigung für den Brunnen Auch wenn die Genehmigungspflicht für Brunnen den Kommunen unterliegt, sind einige Standards bundesweit ähnlich.
Anmelden immer Generell muss jeder Grundwasserbrunnen in Deutschland bei der zuständigen Kommune oder Stadt gemeldet werden. Anschluss- und Benutzungszwang Eine knifflige rechtliche Situation kann entstehen, wenn in der Satzung der betroffenen Kommune ein Anschluss- und Benutzungszwang definiert ist.
Wenn Sie einen Brunnen betreiben, der nicht angemeldet oder genehmigt ist, braucht es nicht unbedingt einen Denunzianten, der die zuständige Behörde informiert.Bei Ganz - oder Teilverwendung der Materialien ist der Link auf inosturman. Lebensmittel Kosmetika Bei den insgesamt 4. VIII Kap. Katzen und andere Katzenartige stellen den Endwirt dieses Erregers dar und scheiden ihn mit dem Kot aus. Er kann Visit web page enthalten zu Produkt- und Betriebskontrollen oder einer Kombination aus beidem. Man muss verstehen, dass es Ethik vom staatlichen Dienst gibt, casually, Boncredit was vor allem gehört sie zu den Botschaftern. Die Mitgliedstaaten wenden diese Vorschriften ab dem Weltweit werden zurzeit etwa 1. Eine Einteilung in Klassen gibt es hier nicht. Nach dem Ausheizen der Goldfalle erfolgt die Detektion nach dem Prinzip der Atomabsorptionsspektroskopie. Die Ausbildung einer Resistenz kann please click for source Ebene des Virusgenoms mittels molekularbiologischer Methoden erkannt werden. Humanpathogene Keimarten wie Salmonellen oder 26 Listerien waren in den Proben durchweg nicht nachweisbar.
Die Klausel "Bauliche Änderungen durch den Mieter, insbesondere Um- und Einbauten, Installationen, auch die Vergitterung der Fenster und die Herstellung und Verände- rung von Feuerstätten, dürfen nur mit schriftlicher Einwilligung des Vermieters vorgenommen werden.
Die Parteien streiten über die Wirksamkeit der fristlosen Kündigung des Gewerberaummieters. Der Mietvertrag enthält die beiden oben zitierten Vertragsklauseln.
Das Mietobjekt war als "Autokarosseriewerkstatt und Fahrzeughalle" baurechtlich genehmigt. Der Mieter betrieb das Cateringunternehmen sechs Jahre lang unbeanstandet.
Der Vermieter weigerte sich, an der Einholung der Genehmigung der Nutzungsänderung mitzuwirken. Der Mieter beantragte dann die Baugenehmigung für die erfolgte Nutzungsänderung.
The second volume is comprised of letters, and in addition to Elisabeth and Johann Casimir, Anna and August, thirteen other correspondents are represented.
This second volume does not appear to have been bound while Anna was alive: the last letter was received in Dresden on 14 September , only c.
Even so, the original order of the letters appears to have survived. The drafts for these letters are bound together with the received letters.
The titles of the two volumes of received letters also point to the common practice of binding the letters from a married couple together.
The concordance between the sequence in which Anna prepared the outgoing letters and the transmitted order of her received correspondence provide further evidence in support of it.
All four letters were 10 Johann Casimir to Anna, 26 Dec. Gemahl Frau Anna, gebohr. These three letters are bound together among the received letters.
The five letters are all dated 18 or 19 March and penned on consecutive pages folio in her letter-book. The reconstruction is based exclusively on the order in which the letters appear in the bound volumes, but can be confirmed by the content of several of the letters.
Anna refers to this letter in her reply in Kop. However, because of the intact provenance of the letters sent from Elisabeth, Johann Casimir and his parents to Anna, it is frequently possible to reconstruct at least the approximate date of a lost letter.
Roughly half of these were sent from Elisabeth to Anna. In comparison, drafts for c. It may seem unsound to employ the numbers of letters as an indication of social relations.
Not only is it clear that an unknown number of letters have been lost, but the quantities also do not reveal anything about the content of letters.
It is unlikely that Anna replied to her daughter and not to the other correspondents. Hence, Anna had sent letters to them between late-February and midMarch, but these are not preserved.
This gives reason to believe that development outlined below reflects more than the result of coincidental transmission of the material.
Year Number of letters Number of letters Number of letters Number of letters from Anna Elisabeth to from Elisabeth to from Anna Anna Johann Casimir to from Johann Casimir to Anna 7 6 4 5 9 17 5 14 7 5 4 6 10 12 7 9 7 10 2 2 8 19 2 7 16 20 1 1 14 16 0 1 12 11 3 9 10 16 0 1 10 13 0 0 9 12 0 1 8 5 0 0 7 10 0 0 12 10 2 2 6 8 0 0 Total 30 58 From the fifteen years investigated in this paper, letters exchanged between Anna and Elisabeth survive, but only 88 exchanged between Johann Casimir and Anna can be located.
Generally, more letters sent to Anna than sent by her have survived, possibly because not all of her letters were entered in the letter-books.
During the first years of the marriage, Elisabeth and Johann Casimir sent almost the same number of letters to Anna, and this suggests that the later 23 For only the letters written after 1 June i.
The communication between Anna and Elisabeth reached a quantitative peak between and between 23 and 36 letters survive from each of these years , and the lowest number is found in 12 letters.
Johann Casimir and Anna exchanged the highest number of letters in 19 letters , and with the exception of , they almost ceased to communicate from Most frequently these sets consist of letters from Johann Casimir and Elisabeth to August and Anna, hence, four letters sent together.
Only five of these bear a date on which Elisabeth did not write to her mother. From October until Christmas, Elisabeth was in Saxony, and when Johann Casimir sent a letter to her it seems that he also included one for Anna.
In these he repeatedly addressed when he wanted Elisabeth to be back in the Palatinate, see for examples Loc. Frequently, correspondences are conceptualised or even published as isolated exchanges between two people.
The provenance of the letters Elisabeth sent to Anna suggests that this imagination of easily definable exchanges between two individuals, which lie behind this practice, should be dismissed.
Even if each letter has only one sender and one addressee, several participants have to be granted access into the exchanges.
In the description above, it has been demonstrated how the letters from a married couple were bound together, and the overview points to a direct interrelation between the contact which took place between Elisabeth and Johann Casimir, respectively, and Anna.
But the inclusion of participants into an exchange should be taken further than to spouse: among the c.
Johann Casimir and Elisabeth to August, both 26 Jan. The individuals who only are represented in the copies of these letters are not included in this count.
See for example the letters from Amalie, Electress Palatine, Loc. The letters sent by Anna von Hohenlohe and Margaretha von Schleinitz, the two noble widows who recurrently spent longer periods by Elisabeth can be found in Loc.
Heller et al. Until Elisabeth and Johann Casimir had sent most of their letters to Anna together, but at this point Johann Casimir and Anna almost stopped corresponding.
These are the changing patterns of the correspondence, from which I will depart in order to examine what the content of the letters reveal about the nature and possible causes of the changes.
One of the last instances in which Johann Casimir and Elisabeth sent letters to her parents together was at the beginning of February He expressed gratitude for the offer of their portraits, and he thanked August for his financial help to secure Elisabeth through the acquisition of the estate Friedelheim.
Finally, he wished them a happy new year. She then proceeded with an account of the answer Johann Casimir had given to her numerous requests for permission to visit her parents.
He had told her that a Diet soon would be proclaimed to take place in the vicinity of Saxony, and that she there would have a chance to see her parents.
Only if this did not happen or her parents could not attend the Diet, would she be allowed to visit them in Saxony.
His reluctance to grant her permission for the trip was explained by financial concerns. The content of the second letter stands in stark contrast to the first.
Here Elisabeth thanked her mother for an autograph letter and for the consolation Anna sought to provide her daughter because God had given her such a difficult cross to bear.
The next passage regards the money Johann Casimir had received from August. Elisabeth explained that she did not know about it nor about the conditions on which August had given the gift until the most recent letters from her parents had arrived.
The large sum was given on the condition that Johann Casimir deed the estate Friedelheim to Elisabeth. No answer had arrived yet, but she promised to disclose to her mother whatever else she found out about it.
She depicted his deep subjugation to his father, which transferred some of the blame to Friedrich III, but it also weakened Johann Casimir in relation to his parents-in-law.
And in keeping with the secrecy, Anna made no references to any of the information it contained in her replies. The information she so urgently needed to send to her mother regarded the christening of the child she was expecting.
This initiated a series of changes. On 2 September , she again penned two letters to Anna; a short letter, which Johann Casimir is likely to have read and approved, and a much longer and bleaker account of the obstacles she faced with regard to communications with her mother.
She explained that she usually had no problems securing messengers, but when Johann Casimir knew that she was preparing letters for her parents, no messenger would be made available.
The last letter from Anna to Amalie is dated 4 June The secret correspondence, which thus far had been sporadic, could now be carried out at regular intervals.
The provenance of her letters thus help to emphasise the interdependence between the various relationships between both groups and individuals within a dynastic figuration.
I consciously employ the terms figuration and interdependence and this requires a mention of the work of Norbert Elias.
The same danger is present if provenance is overestimated as a source. A consequent application of the approach advocated by Elias can even result in a disregard for notions of beginnings and ends, in part because his work regards long-term developments but also because of his insistence on change as a process.
The second point I wish to make regards the dichotomy of autonomy and dependency. Sociogenetic and Psychogenetic Investigations, Oxford, first German edition, , especially pp.
However, the tension, which Martin resolves through a distinction between conviction and appearance, bears resemblance to the questionable dichotomy of autonomy and dependency.
By the 16th century, people were reflecting on communication via letters, as the following example shows.
For the present article, see in particular: Roger Chartier dir. La scrittura epistolare femminile tra archivio e tipografia, Roma, Viella, I am grateful to Jeff Shapiro and Pernille Arenfeldt for careful proofreading.
But the episode reveals much more. Letters are here situated in the context of a noble culture, the importance of literacy is pointed out, as is the importance of the delivering and receiving of a letter which can fulfill its purpose only once it has been read by the person to whom it is addressed.
Indeed, Bernardino Pino himself suggests in his treatise a clear distinction between the letter that is being written and the one being received.
I will then proceed to interpret this, in my opinion, emblematic case, focusing mainly on one side of the communication that took place via letters: the reception, that is the act of receiving letters and the significance that was attached to this act.
Bernardino Pino da Cagli. Michele Peretti suo sposo e consorte [hereafter: Lettere diverse]. I developed this interest in a much broader context in my PhD thesis Sotto controllo.
Though well aware of the different typology of the examples I will report on I will deal with published and unpublished letters, written by writers from different social backgrounds , I intend to show their corresponding and contradictory elements in the following paper.
The main purpose of this paper is thus to demonstrate some of the difficulties associated with the interpretation of early modern letters and to challenge their clear-cut categorization as fictional or non-fictional texts.
How shall we contextualize this specific case in which we read texts written by a Roman noblewoman, describing her grief over the absence of the beloved, underlining with remarkable selfconfidence that she is suffering more than he is?
Scholars such as Ago, Casanova, Fosi, Visceglia and Borello have pointed out that the simple existence of a letter may be evidence of effective networking.
Michele Peretti, grandnephew of Sixtus V, had urged Francesco, his only son from his first marriage, to get married to ensure the perpetuation of the family.
When, shortly after the death of his first wife, he first went to meet his future daughter-in-law whom Francesco had chosen, Michele himself fell in love with Anna Maria.
Was there indeed an intense love affair behind the letters, almost untouched by strategic consideration of an alliance between two Roman noble families, or are we overly eager to accept the 19th century idea of romantic love re- presented by Litta?
The relationship that we read about in the letters is mainly confined to the writing and especially the reading of letters. One of the main themes is reflections on reading and writing.
And of course, a precondition for the production of love-letters is literacy, that is access to reading skills also for 7 Cf. Le politiche matrimoniali della famiglia Spada secc.
Rivista di storia delle donne, 21 3 , , pp. Lowe eds. At the beginning of the 17th century, published letter-writing guides so-called libri di lettere were widely distributed in Italy.
In his remarkable study of Le carte messaggiere 16th century letter-writering guides , Amedeo Quondam drew a distinction between other types of letter and the genre of the love letter, the lettera amorosa.
Reinhard M. Nickisch, Die Stilprinzipien in den deutschen Briefstellern des They were all reprinted several times despite censorship, as I will discuss later.
In one popular collection of published letters, the Roman noblewoman Celia withdraws to her room in order to read her letters in private.
It was however rather unusual that letters were read in solitude. In questa seconda Impressione rivedute, et accresciute.
The letters substitute the presence of the beloved. Petrarca, Canzoniere, a cura di P. Cudini, Milano Garzanti , p.
I giorni son longhissimi, et i tempi assai cattivi, et V. He concluded that to while I am reading them over and over.
Opereta amorosa, p. The days are terribly long, times are quite hard, and your lordship promised me to come soon, that helps me a bit, tomorrow is Thursday.
Above all he underlined that words needed the consent of the beloved, because she could be looked at without permission, but if she listened to his words or read them, she had to be in agreement.
Verdi , p. Then, since that sex is tender hearted and easily moved to pity, we shall strive to be as supplicating as possible.
We shall extol her merits and belittle our own, or at any rate mention them with great modesty. We shall demonstrate intense love joined to deep despair.
We shall try by turns moaning, flattery, and despair; at other times we shall make skilful use of selfpraise and promises; we shall employ precedents of famous and honourable women who showed favour to a pure, unfeigned love and to the devotion of youths far beneath them in social condition.
We shall attempt to show of humility we shall beg that if she can in no way deign to give her love in return, she will at least resign herself to being loved without prejudice to herself; we shall add that if this request is not granted, we are resolved to cut short a cruel life by whatever means 31 possible.
Flattery and gifts were also useful, great promises could be used as well, because every woman is ultimately seducible, as Boncompagno shows by refererence to the successful seductions of nuns.
In most pedagogical treatises and advice books on behaviour of the second half of the 16th century, we find allusions to the danger attributed to letters.
Literary and Educational Writings 3. Kelly Sowards, translated by Charles Fantazzi, Toronto , p. Nevertheless in Venice in Mambre had no reservations about having his wife read his correspondence.
Inquisitionis, b. The letters were too powerful against the weekness of a female heart, that is easily impressed.
De Bujanda , Quebec seg. ILI , vol. IX, p. ILI, IX, p. The prohibitions, therefore, functioned only partially. Her familiarity with literary texts certainly influenced her writing, but she appropriated the words for her own use.
Celia warned against the possible misuse of letters with the following words. Tale confesso essere di me avenuto. In any case, the copying from letter books was widespread.
Uffizio, b. Lizzari, Cassandra Ruggiero mentions her case, without talking about the love letter. Guido Ruggiero, Binding Passions.
ASV, S. The collection presented a series of ready-made sentences for all occasions arranged in alphabetical order. Among the aphorisms, we are told how to express joy upon receiving a letter.
By the beginning of 17th century, women and men move between standard expressions in their letters, a highly codified genre.
The writing of letters must always be seen in connection with the various ways in which the same letters might be read. Epistolary communication cannot be thought of without considering the moral framework in which the letters were written.
What must be reconstructed are the circumstances of receiving letters, the role of the inbetweens, the specific tactique De Certeau of appropriating texts, and the meaning the exchange of love letters could have.
The correspondents were quite conscious of their use of readymade phrases. It seems worthwhile to investigate in detail how the letter writers tried to overcome the dilemma of expressing themselves forced to use inevitable standard expressions.
Barthes recognizes behind this dilemma a semantic standard feature. Raccolti da lui per scrivere familiarmente, Roma Vincenzo Valgrisi Dolfi gives a convincing interpretation of this fragment in the introduction to A.
Atti di seminario. Trento, maggio , Roma , pp. Jahrhundert erhoben worden waren. Erst in den achtziger Jahren des Beatrix Bastl, Tugend, Liebe, Ehre.
Faksimiledruck nach den Ausgaben von und Mit einem Nachwort von Reinhard M. Nickisch, Stuttgart Briefkultur im So schreibt Johanna Theresia Harrach, geborene von Lamberg, am Juli an ihren Mann Ferdinand Bonaventura I.
Diese galten aber nicht unbegrenzt und wurden manchmal gnadenlos dechiffriert. Alltag bei Hof im ausgehenden Juni in der Linzer Burg inhaftiert wurde.
Oktober Juni auf dem Platz am Hof in Wien enthauptet. Was mier leider, gott erbarms, mein liebster herr und gemahll vonn seinem leydigen zustandt zugeschriben, das wird mein herr vetter aus beyliegender seiner handtschrift vernehmen, darauf ich umb godt und es jungsten gericht willen mein flehendlichs und hochfreundlichs bidten, mein her vedter wolle sich alsbalt, und in angesicht dieses schreibens aufmachen unnd durchaus in erwegung der hechsten noth nicht ausbleiben Eine Festgabe Hermann Wiesflecker zum Geburtstag, Graz , S.
Juni Erst im So schreibt Helena, die in das Franziskanerinnenkloster Hl. Deine treue schwester bis in tod, Helena von 24 Schallnberg.
Chaufontaines, August 6. Es geht nicht um eine Opposition zwischen Umgangston und Kanzleistil, sondern um den Versuch die Darstellung des Selbst innerhalb des Briefschreibens zu kultivieren.
Sprechinhalte sollten verbal rekonstruiert werden. Jahrhunderts bereits zu beobachten. Jahrhundert29 oder die Korrespondenz zwischen Judith von Ungnad gest.
Adlige Ehen im Purpose and form of epistolary conversation between aristocratic siblings Siena 17th century by Benedetta Borello In recent years, careful analysis carried out on correspondence by historians, anthropologists and linguists has emphasized one of its fundamental functions: the letter creates social relationships.
In particular, family letters have offered very fertile ground for investigation. The letters show us that within the aristocratic families there existed areas of more intense relationships or relations of a different type.
Sigismondo was ten when he moved to Rome, and his moving away from home was indispensable and fairly urgent.
Second child but only and very beloved son of Francesca Piccolomini, since the other children were born from Olimpia Della Ciaia , with an uncle who was Pope, Sigismondo was to take up an ecclesiastic career and become a cardinal at only eighteen.
Departure from Siena gave way to a consistent flow of letters directed to the young prelate. The family archive preserves the correspondence written by Olimpia Chigi, third child of Augusto and Olimpia Della Ciaia, as well as wife of Giulio Gori as of There are about ninety letters written between and , nearly all addressed to her brother.
The letters written by Francesca Piccolomini, numerous and well preserved, bear witness to a very intense relationship.
Their mother, who had stayed in Siena, seemed invested with the duty of managing the family relationships in toto.
Over the following pages I will reconstruct the family networks that the Chigi siblings wove during the second half of the 17th century between Siena and Rome, comparing the two relationship systems with that bound between mother and son.
I would like to show how the scope of the single letters sent by the two women blends with their manners of expression. Epistolary conversations between siblings served to create a dense area, that integrated well with the overall family equilibrium, with the strategies pursued, and with the primogeniture logic.
Brother and sisters The relationship between siblings, their conflicts and their complicity are a topic that still merits an in-depth study.
Lawrence Stone, for example, suggested various times in his Family, Sex and Marriage in England, the intensity of the sibling relationship in the sixteenth and seventeenth century family.
Following the path marked by Hans Medick and David Sabean and above all by Martine Segalen in their volume,11 the editors of the issue of Quaderni Storici dwelled on the reconstruction and redefinition of the male and female roles at the time of transmission or division of patrimony.
In the inheritance game or in the creation of a circuit of dowries, strongly complementary matters between siblings seem to emerge within families.
Yet the letters also witnessed an on-going play of readjustment to reabsorb asymmetries of power and conflicts, playing with different wording as well.
Secret and confidence In the two epistolaries written by the sisters Chigi to their brother I seem to find a solid bond between siblings who, between Siena and Rome, worked together, each one within their own sphere in the interest in the lineage.
The domestic roles covered by Sigismondo Chigi, Olimpia Chigi Gori and Sister Maria Pulcheria Chigi, cut out precise scopes of action for the siblings and defined their duties.
Nevertheless, the letters show how the functions could work well together, creating alternative spaces yet nonetheless essential to the most traditional family dynamics, characterising the logic of the primogeniture.
The topics of the letters were varied and, naturally, the reasons the two sisters decided to take pen in hand were different. At times though, the restricted circulation of news could even not take the form of transmitting a secret or a confidence.
Within the family there could actually be a kind of specialisation by topic. Some could be delegated to deal with certain matters in their letters, while others intentionally ignored them.
After the volume edited by Hans Medick and David Sabean, it is superfluous to say that, within these family networks, woven transversally and that could take on various shapes, material interests and affection were indissolubly bound.
This can be seen quite well in a letter written by Sister Maria Pulcheria at the end of This time the letter was the fruit of family collaboration.
Sister Pucheria wrote with her young niece Angela Chigi,17 brought up in the cloisters. The epistolary conversation between the two siblings concerned another Chigi, whom sender and addressee claimed to know well.
Benedetta Borello, Trame sovrapposte. Wife of the only Roman Chigi, Agostino, Maria Virginia had had only one boy and, so far, seven girls.
She was to have four more girls. On 16 November , only Angela was left at Campansi, seven years old. According to what Sister Pulcheria wrote to her brother Sigismondo, aunt and niece had no misgivings.
Regular and necessary correspondence showed each family member the existence of a kinship front where advice, goods and services circulated.
The second part of the letter was dedicated to confidentiality, sending secrets and intimate, personal impressions, which, along with the social aspect, were the other key element of the correspondence.
Her aunt tells about how, after a series of fevers, the little girl recovered and seemed to be enjoying good health.
There is no doubt about the sincerity of these words. This letter, as nearly all the others, talks about the monastery, about Roman relatives who would be guests there, and other matters are touched on that had never been discussed in the correspondence of the other sister, Olimpia Chigi.
The two epistolaries run parallel, almost never intersecting. Reading the nearly twenty years of correspondence of the two women with their brother, there are no more than two mentions of one of them a name or sarcastic comment in the correspondence of the other one.
This is not the case, for example, for Francesca Piccolomini. Nearly all her letters to her son had news about the health of family members, information about the management of the family assets and about the economic situation of the married sisters; it was always Francesca who took care of telling Sigismondo how to behave with the other sister or with the aunts in the monastery, which were places Francesca frequented no less assiduously than the drawing rooms of noble palaces or country villas.
Even though bonded by affection and material interests to their cardinal brother, the two women had woven, within the family atmosphere, networks that were nearly independent and fairly tight knit between them.
The style of their epistolary conversation, the circuits for transmitting news and secrets depicted these two webs of relationships quite differently.
Yet both sisters had an intense and articulate relationship with Sigismondo. Correspondence served to build dense areas of social relations, that could be used to contrast the destructive logic of the primogeniture and maintain a bridge between the new and the old city, between the Roman Curia and Siena.
The two sisters used the pen differently. Aside from the topics, the recounting of events, the confidential information they sent their brother, the form of their letters was different too.
The language she used reveals a fairly good education, which she had at the Campansi monastery at the knee of her aunt, Sister Maria Agnese Chigi.
Yet her handwriting was terrible, at least if compared to that of her sister. Maybe she had little bent for holding a pen, since the handwriting of her aunt was much better.
In writing to her brother, she concealed no detail of her life. She went through her 19 Cf. Girolamo in Campansi zu Siena und SS. Studien zu Ehren von Hermann Hoberg, 1.
Teil, Rome , pp. She also told things that, if expressed publicly or referred to the person concerned, would have offended them.
Her pen was biting even with her family. What Olimpia told in confidence to her brother on 9 December not only put Sister Maria Pulcheria in a bad light, but if it had been made public it could have upset the plans for the destiny of the young Roman Chigi girls.
Suor Maria Pulcheria and maybe part of the Sienese branch would have been kept more at the margins of family life.
That did not happen: Sigismondo opportunely kept his silence, not believing his sister and, implicitly, protecting the other sister.
Aside from keeping secrecy, this correspondence reveals clear reciprocity. Olimpia and Sigismondo spoke the same language, knew the same people well and could share secrets.
Brother and sister handled letters in the same manner. Distance could impoverish the baggage of mutual experiences. And even a different way of handling what was written could damage the solidity of an epistolary bond.
Showing a confidential writing, like betraying a secret, was considered a grave offence. On 1st January , for example, Francesca Piccolomini asked Sigismondo not to show the letter that she had sent him; a week later she insisted with the same request, giving as a reason the low literary level of her compositions, but a more likely reason was to be able to dialogue more freely with her son.
Regular correspondence was, in this case too, conceived as an obligation. It is clear, although, that the exchange of correspondence was less intense in its content, just as the density of the relationships that intertwined in that area of kinship was less intense.
In a few months the matrimony transformed her from a convent girl to the centre of a vast epistolary network that embraced Naples, Milan and the Farnese court of Parma, where her aunts lived.
Steadfast writing was an obligation from which the young woman, like every other aristocrat, could not evade. Per iscritto. Antropologia delle scritture quotidiane, Lecce , pp.
The tone was ceremonious, not unbecoming to an Aldobrandini woman, but quite different to what was used in the Chigi household, at least between Sigismondo and his sisters.
In such cases the letter became precious as a handwritten gift, to exhibit in witness of a bond that could be traced back only by the name and coat of arms.
When compared to those written to Sigismondo, the intimacy and density of relationships between siblings can immediately be seen.
Pulcheria had no qualms about asking her brother for money, even insistently. Money seems to me to be a revealing detail in understanding the confidence and intimacy that there could be between sender and addressee, as can be seen in the two examples that follow, where Olimpia Maidalchini and Olimpia Aldobrandini broached the subject in their letters.
In mid December , Olimpia Maidalchini made a comment to her mother about some expenses made by her brother, Andrea, on the occasion of his marriage.
Between Olimpia and her mother, during the twenties of the seventeenth century, a heavy, confidential epistolary dialogue developed.
The topic of the letter could make this area of kinship more dense. When the wedding had already taken place, Olimpia bitterly scolded her mother for the money wasted on the celebration.
In fact, gold palls had been bought, by then out of fashion. Neither aunts nor niece would have ever dared criticise expenses for clothes or carriages, as Olimpia Maidalchini did.
It is difficult to establish whether this lack could be attributed to scarce intimacy between aunts and niece, or to a total lack of information about the true value of things.
Both possibilities seem likely. Olimpia saw little of the other Aldobrandini women. The sums mentioned in the various letters were different: Sister Maria Pulcheria wanted a small amount for her personal needs, on the other hand Francesca asked about the lifestyle she would lead after the departure of her sons for Rome.
Some conclusions Study of the correspondence, the careful analysis of the expressive forms and the placing of the epistolary gesture in the time of the family and its internal 23 Ibid.
From this point of view, I believe I can identify the more popular channels of transmission of news, affective bonds, exchange of goods and services.
One is certainly that between sister and brother, and I think I can add between sistersand brothers-in-law and at times between sons- and daughters-in-law.
The members of this family used to create intimacy with some of their parents and these dense areas influenced decisions and strategies of the whole family group.
The letters that both wrote are evidence of this work together. Correspondence and therefore dialogue and not only the manner of address 24 Ibid.
Alongside this, I feel that interesting ideas can be obtained from the study of houses and of division of space inside them, from the circulation of knowledge, the consumption of family goods and from devotion.
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